生物降解塑料是指一类由自然界存在的微生物如细菌、霉菌（真菌）和藻类的效果而引起降解的塑料。理想的生物降解塑料是一种具有优良的运用性能、抛弃后可被 环境微生物彻底分解、终究被无机化而成为自然界中碳素循环的一个组成部分的高分子资料。“纸”是一种典型的生物降解资料，而“组成塑料”则是典型的高分子 资料。因此，生物降解塑料是兼有“纸”和“组成塑料”这两种资料性质的高分子资料。生物降解塑料又可分为彻底生物降解塑料和破坏性生物降解塑料两种。
Biodegradable plastics refer to a kind of plastic which is degraded by the effect of natural microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae. The ideal biodegradable plastic is a kind of polymer material with excellent performance, which can be completely decomposed by environmental microorganisms after abandonment and eventually become an integral part of the carbon cycle in nature. Paper is a typical biodegradable material, while Composition Plastics is a typical macromolecule material. Therefore, biodegradable plastics are macromolecule materials with both "paper" and "constituent plastics". Biodegradable plastics can also be divided into two types: completely biodegradable plastics and destructive biodegradable plastics.
Destructive biodegradable plastics: Destructive biodegradable plastics currently mainly include starch modified (or filled) polyethylene PE, polypropylene PP, polyvinyl chloride PVC, polystyrene PS and so on.
Thoroughly biodegradable plastics: Thoroughly biodegradable plastics are mainly made from natural macromolecule (such as starch, cellulose, chitin) or agricultural by-products fermented by microorganisms or composed of biodegradable macromolecule, such as thermoplastic starch plastics, aliphatic polyesters, polylactic acid, starch/polyvinyl alcohol and so on.
国内外生物降解塑料现状与发展趋势 从原资料上分类，生物降解塑料至少有以下几种： 1.聚己内酯（PCL）
Current situation and development trend of biodegradable plastics at home and abroad are classified according to the original data. There are at least the following kinds of biodegradable plastics: 1. Polycaprolactone (PCL)
The plastic has good biodegradability and melting point is 62 C. The microorganisms that decompose it are widely distributed under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. As a biodegradable material, it can be mixed with starch and cellulose or used in lactic acid polymerization.
2. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and its copolymers
The technology of manufacturing various high molecular weight polyesters based on PBS (melting point 114 C) has reached the level of industrial production. Mitsubishi Chemicals and Showa Polymer Co., Ltd. of Japan has started industrialized production with a plan of about 1000 tons.
The Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Chinese Academy of Sciences is also discussing the composition of polybutylene succinate copolyester. At present, the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is preparing to build a production line of PBS with an annual output of 10,000 tons, and the Guangdong Golden Hair Company has built a planned production line with an annual output of 1,000 tons.
3. Polylactic acid (PLA)
Natureworks Corporation of the United States has done active and effective work in improving the production process of polylactic acid. It has developed the production of polylactic acid from corn by fermentation of glucose. Its annual production capacity has reached 14,000 tons. UNITIKA company in Japan has developed and produced many kinds of products, including canvas, trays, tableware and so on, which are widely used in Aichi Expo in Japan.
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