生物可降解高分子材料的特点介绍 - 常见问题

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生物可降解高分子材料的特点介绍

生物可降解高分子材料的特点介绍

来源网址:http://www.rsoau.com 2019-01-07 15:04:01    

跟着塑料、纤维制品以及橡胶等高分子资料广泛使用于社会各个领域之中, 社会和经济有了更进一步的开展。跟着高分子资料使用数量的添加, 其废弃物数量也以较快速度添加, 很多存在已老化、难降解、寿命短等缺点的高分子资料废物给我们的生态环境带来了巨大的灾难。焚烧法、掩埋法等传统高分子资料的处理计划存在必定的局限性和危险, 此类计划费时费力并对环境造成了严重的污染。伴跟着生活品质的进步, 人们的生活环境要求和环保认识也逐步增强。因而, 对生物降解高分子资料的研讨开发受到了社会各界的支撑与关注。生物可降解资料指的是在自然界中的微生物, 如:细菌、霉菌和藻类效果下可完全降解为低分子的资料

With the wide use of polymer materials such as plastics, fibre products and rubber in various fields of society, social and economic development has been further developed. With the increase of the amount of polymer materials used, the amount of waste is also added at a relatively rapid rate. Many of the polymer materials wastes with aging, refractory, short life and other shortcomings have brought great disasters to our ecological environment. There are certain limitations and dangers in traditional macromolecule data processing schemes such as incineration and burial methods, which are time-consuming and laborious and cause serious environmental pollution. With the progress of quality of life, people's living environment requirements and environmental awareness are gradually enhanced. Therefore, the research and development of biodegradable polymer materials has received support and attention from all walks of life. Biodegradable data refer to data that can be completely degraded to low molecular weight by microorganisms in nature, such as bacteria, fungi and algae.
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生物可降解高分子资料是经过一段时间, 在必定条件前提之下, 使微生物在酶或者化学分解效果下发作降解的高分子资料。一般认为, 高分子资料的生物可降解进程是包括两个阶段的。在一个阶段, 微生物经过朝体外排泄水解酶和资料的外表结合在一起, 借助水解的效果, 使高分子链被堵截开来, 使化合物变为小于500的小分子量的化合物。接着, 微生物使降解的生成物摄入体内, 在这个代谢的进程中, 降解的生成物经过终究转化, 得到了H2O和CO2。综合上面的进程, 可知生物可降解的进程中涉及到的生物和化学、物理方面的知识是较多的, 这是一个杂乱的物理化学进程。现在, 关于生物可降解的机理还不明确, 不只如此, 高分子资料的降解还有别的一些解说, 比如生物侵蚀和生物吸收等解说。经过实践证明, 生物可降解高分子资料的降解进程不但与资料本身有相关, 还跟外部环境息息相关。
Biodegradable macromolecule data is a kind of macromolecule data that can be degraded by microorganisms under enzymatic or chemical decomposition effect after a period of time and under certain conditions. It is generally believed that the biodegradable process of polymer data includes two stages. In the first stage, microorganisms excrete hydrolases in vitro and combine them with the appearance of the data. With the aid of the hydrolysis effect, the polymer chain is blocked and the compound becomes a small molecular weight compound less than 500. Then, microorganisms feed the degraded products into the body. In this metabolic process, the degraded products are eventually transformed into hydrogen peroxide and carbon dioxide. From the above process, we can see that the biodegradable process involves a lot of knowledge about biology, chemistry and physics, which is a messy physical and chemical process. At present, the mechanism of biodegradability is not clear. Besides, there are other explanations about the degradation of polymer materials, such as bio-erosion and bio-absorption. Practice has proved that the degradation process of biodegradable polymer data is not only related to the data itself, but also to the external environment.
经过将可生物降解的高分子资料跟其他资料进行比较, 可发现可生物降解高分子资料的优势是较大的, 不只无毒性而且没有污染, 对环境是非常友爱的。但是, 从当前实践使用状况来看, 这种类型的高分子资料的本钱较高, 所以市面上的这类产品的价格较高, 产品性能受到了限制, 使用规模也较小。所以, 关于高分子资料的研讨人员来讲, 需要就本钱问题和性价比问题进行思考, 这样才能促进这类资料更好地进行推行和使用。
By comparing the biodegradable polymer data with other data, it can be found that the advantages of biodegradable polymer data are larger, not only non-toxic but also non-polluting. It is very friendly to the environment. However, from the current practical use, the cost of this type of polymer material is higher, so the price of this kind of product on the market is higher, the performance of the product is limited, and the scale of use is smaller. Therefore, the researchers on polymer materials need to think about the cost and cost-effectiveness, so as to promote the better implementation and use of such materials.
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