生物降解颗粒的种类及其使用的广泛性 - 常见问题

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生物降解颗粒的种类及其使用的广泛性

生物降解颗粒的种类及其使用的广泛性

来源网址:http://www.rsoau.com 2019-01-02 17:10:42    

生物降解材料按其生物降解过程大致可分为两类。一类为全生物降解材料,如天然高分子纤维素、人工合成的聚己内酯等,其分解作用主要来自:①由于微生物的迅速增长导致塑料结构的物理性崩溃;②由于微生物的生化作用、酶催化或酸碱催化下的各种水解;③其他各种因素造成的自由基连锁式降解。另一类为生物崩解性材料,如淀粉和聚乙烯的掺混物,其分解作用主要由于添加剂被破坏并削弱了聚合物链,使聚合物分子量降解到微生物能够消化的程度,比较后分解为二氧化碳(CO2)和水。

Biodegradable materials can be roughly divided into two categories according to their biodegradation process. One is biodegradable materials, such as natural macromolecule cellulose and synthetic polycaprolactone, whose decomposition mainly comes from: (1) physical collapse of plastic structure caused by the rapid growth of microorganisms; (2) hydrolysis under microbial biochemistry, enzyme catalysis or acid-base catalysis; and (3) free radical chain degradation caused by other factors. The other is biodisintegrating materials, such as the mixture of starch and polyethylene, whose decomposition is mainly due to the destruction of the polymer chain by additives, which degrades the molecular weight of the polymer to the extent that microorganisms can digest, and finally decomposes into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water.
生物崩解性材料大多采用添加淀粉和光敏剂的方法,与聚乙烯和聚苯乙烯共混生产。研究表明[2],淀粉基生物降解塑料袋比较终将进入垃圾场,不接触阳光,即使其中有发生物双降解作用,所发生的降解作用也主要以生物降解为主。一定时间的试验表明:垃圾袋无明显的降解现象,垃圾袋没有自然破损,甚至对袋里的垃圾起到一定的"保鲜"作用。
生物降解颗粒
Biodisintegrating materials are mostly produced by blending polyethylene and polystyrene with starch and photosensitizer. The results show that [2] starch-based biodegradable plastic bags will eventually enter the refuse dump without exposure to sunlight. Even if there is biodegradation, biodegradation will take place mainly. The test for a certain period of time shows that there is no obvious degradation phenomenon in the garbage bags, and the garbage bags are not damaged naturally, even play a certain role of "preservation" for the garbage in the bags.
对于解决环境污染,尽管含淀粉基的塑料比一次性塑料制品有效,但由于仍采用不能生物降解的聚乙烯或聚酯材料为原料,故除了添加的淀粉能够降解外,剩余的大量聚乙烯或聚酯仍会残存而不能完全生物降解,只是分解为碎片,无法回收,进入土壤后情况更糟,对废弃物的处理造成混乱,因而完全生物降解材料成为降解材料的研究重点。   生物降解材料用途广泛,可完全生物降解塑料原料及其制品,制品包括淀粉基全生物降解购物袋、连卷袋、平口袋、高性能生物降解保鲜袋、高淀粉含量的生物降解城市垃圾分类袋、生物基可降解快递袋、水溶性洗涤用包装袋、农用地膜、工业用包装袋、电子产品类包装袋、一次性快餐具、饮料瓶杯等制品。这些产品取材于玉米、木薯等天然植物,其中生物含量均大于50%,比较快在90天内可实现完全降解。
In order to solve environmental pollution, although starch-based plastics are more effective than disposable plastics, polyethylene or polyester materials which can not be biodegraded are still used as raw materials. In addition to starch added, a large amount of polyethylene or polyester will remain and can not be completely biodegraded, but will be decomposed into debris and can not be recovered. The situation is worse when it enters the soil. Complete biodegradable materials have become the research focus of degradation materials because of the confusion caused by waste disposal. Biodegradable materials are widely used and can be completely biodegradable plastic materials and products, including starch-based full biodegradable shopping bags, roll bags, flat bags, high-performance biodegradable fresh-keeping bags, high starch content biodegradable municipal garbage sorting bags, biodegradable express bags, water-soluble washing packaging bags, agricultural film, industrial packaging bags, electronic products. Such products as packaging bags, disposable snack utensils, beverage bottles and cups. These products are derived from natural plants such as maize and cassava, in which the biological content is more than 50%, and can be completely degraded within 90 days at the fastest.
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