高直链淀粉玉米的发展特点 - 常见问题

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高直链淀粉玉米的发展特点

高直链淀粉玉米的发展特点

来源网址:http://www.rsoau.com 2018-12-28 15:20:48    

白色污染给人类生存环境带来难以估计的损失,这已引起全社会甚至全人类对环境保护的高度重视。面对日益枯竭的石油资源,契合潮流的生物降解材料作为高科技环保产品正成为一个研发热点。降解塑料要进入市场有必要到达以下要求:

White pollution has brought incalculable losses to human living environment, which has attracted great attention of the whole society and even the whole mankind to environmental protection. Faced with the increasingly depleted oil resources, biodegradable materials that fit the trend as high-tech environmental protection products are becoming a research and development hotspot. In order to enter the market, it is necessary for degradable plastics to meet the following requirements:
① 实用性,具有与同类一般塑料近似的应用功能;
(1) practicability, with similar application function to general plastics of the same kind;
② 降解性,在完成运用功能后能在自然环境中较快地降解,成为易被环境消纳的碎片,比较终回归自然;
(2) Degradability, which can be degraded quickly in the natural environment after completing its function, becomes debris easily absorbed by the environment, and finally returns to nature.
③ 安全性,降解进程中和降解后的残留物对自然环境无害或无潜在损害;
(3) Safety, no harm or potential damage to the natural environment from the degradation process and residues after degradation;
④ 经济性,价格与同类一般塑料接近或持平。
可降解颗粒
(4) Economy, price is close to or equal to that of plastics of the same kind.
但是生物降解塑料的价格过高,降解塑料比同类现行塑料产品的价格高50%以上,其间能彻底降解的高出4倍~8倍,成为其推广应用的比较大障碍。为了下降成本,保证产品的降解功能,淀粉可生物降解塑料成为全国都在关注的热点产品。
But the price of biodegradable plastics is too high. The price of biodegradable plastics is more than 50% higher than that of the current plastics products of the same kind. During this period, the price of biodegradable plastics is 4 to 8 times higher than that of the current plastics products, which becomes the biggest obstacle to its popularization and application. In order to reduce the cost and ensure the degradation function of the products, starch biodegradable plastics have become the focus of national attention.
淀粉是目前运用比较广泛的一类可彻底生物降解的多糖类天然高分子,具有质料来历广泛、价格低廉和易生物降解等优点,在生物降解材料领域占有重要的地位。国内外公布的各种牌号淀粉塑料的力学功能一般能够与同类应用的传统塑料比较,但其运用功能往往不尽善尽美,其首要缺点之一是含淀粉的降解塑料耐水性都不好,湿强度差,一遇水其力学功能则严峻下降,而耐水性恰恰是传统塑料在运用进程中的优点。高直链淀粉相对于一般淀粉有较好的抗水性、耐剪切性和成膜性,因此在塑料工业中的发展潜力巨大。
Starch is one of the most widely used natural polysaccharides which can be completely biodegraded. It has many advantages, such as wide material history, low price and easy biodegradability. It occupies an important position in the field of biodegradable materials. The mechanical functions of various grades of starch plastics published at home and abroad can generally be compared with those of traditional plastics used in the same kind, but their application functions are often not perfect. One of the main shortcomings of starch-containing degradable plastics is that their water resistance is not good, their wet strength is poor, and their mechanical functions decline severely in case of hydration. Water resistance is just the advantage of traditional plastics in the process of application. High amylose starch has better water resistance, shear resistance and film forming properties than common starch, so it has great potential in the development of plastic industry.
从混合淀粉中别离直链淀粉的成本是很高的,如果只靠进口,价格十分贵重的,一般为2000美元/t~2500美元/t。到现在为止,我国对高直链淀粉玉米还没有进行完整体系的研究,尚无杂交种育成。我国直链淀粉仍然首要依靠进口,每年需求花去很多外汇,这就要求咱们加强对高直链淀粉玉米品种的培养,选育出优质、高产、多抗性的高直链淀粉玉米品种投入生产,使得玉米从单纯的粮食作物、饲料作物逐渐向经济作物和工业质料过渡,由单纯产值型向品质型和专用型转变。
The cost of separating amylose from mixed starch is very high. If it is imported only, the price is very expensive, usually between $2000/t and $2500/t. Up to now, there is no systematic study on high amylose maize in China and no hybrid breeding. China's amylose still relies primarily on imports, which consumes a lot of foreign exchange every year. This requires us to strengthen the cultivation of high-amylose maize varieties, to select high-quality, high-yielding and multi-resistant maize varieties and put them into production, so that maize can gradually transit from simple grain crops, feed crops to cash crops and industrial materials, and from simple value-based to quality. Type and dedicated transformation.
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