White pollution has brought incalculable losses to human living environment, which has attracted great attention of the whole society and even the whole mankind to environmental protection. Faced with the increasingly depleted oil resources, biodegradable materials that fit the trend as high-tech environmental protection products are becoming a research and development hotspot. In order to enter the market, it is necessary for degradable plastics to meet the following requirements:
(1) practicability, with similar application function to general plastics of the same kind;
(2) Degradability, which can be degraded quickly in the natural environment after completing its function, becomes debris easily absorbed by the environment, and finally returns to nature.
(3) Safety, no harm or potential damage to the natural environment from the degradation process and residues after degradation;
(4) Economy, price is close to or equal to that of plastics of the same kind.
But the price of biodegradable plastics is too high. The price of biodegradable plastics is more than 50% higher than that of the current plastics products of the same kind. During this period, the price of biodegradable plastics is 4 to 8 times higher than that of the current plastics products, which becomes the biggest obstacle to its popularization and application. In order to reduce the cost and ensure the degradation function of the products, starch biodegradable plastics have become the focus of national attention.
Starch is one of the most widely used natural polysaccharides which can be completely biodegraded. It has many advantages, such as wide material history, low price and easy biodegradability. It occupies an important position in the field of biodegradable materials. The mechanical functions of various grades of starch plastics published at home and abroad can generally be compared with those of traditional plastics used in the same kind, but their application functions are often not perfect. One of the main shortcomings of starch-containing degradable plastics is that their water resistance is not good, their wet strength is poor, and their mechanical functions decline severely in case of hydration. Water resistance is just the advantage of traditional plastics in the process of application. High amylose starch has better water resistance, shear resistance and film forming properties than common starch, so it has great potential in the development of plastic industry.
The cost of separating amylose from mixed starch is very high. If it is imported only, the price is very expensive, usually between $2000/t and $2500/t. Up to now, there is no systematic study on high amylose maize in China and no hybrid breeding. China's amylose still relies primarily on imports, which consumes a lot of foreign exchange every year. This requires us to strengthen the cultivation of high-amylose maize varieties, to select high-quality, high-yielding and multi-resistant maize varieties and put them into production, so that maize can gradually transit from simple grain crops, feed crops to cash crops and industrial materials, and from simple value-based to quality. Type and dedicated transformation.
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