Resources and environment are the main problems facing the sustainable development of human beings in the 21st century. Biotechnology will become one of the key technologies to solve this problem. Among the many factors causing environmental pollution, the pollution caused by plastic waste has attracted wide attention of the society.
At present, the main producers of biodegradable materials in the world are the United States, Japan, Germany, Italy, Israel, Canada and so on. The varieties include photodegradation, photobiodegradation, disintegration biodegradation, complete biodegradation and so on.
Starch biodegradable materials refer to plastics that can be decomposed into carbon dioxide and water, honeycomb porous materials and salts with the help of soil microorganisms, bacteria or their hydrolytic enzymes. After further complete microbial decomposition, they return to the biosphere, which is the current research and development hotspot. Therefore, biodegradable plastics generally refer to new plastics with certain mechanical strength in the natural environment (bacteria, fungi, algae and other microorganisms), which can completely or partially degrade without polluting the environment. The biodegradation mechanism is that high molecular weight polymers are decomposed into small molecular weight fragments by bacteria or their hydrolytic enzymes, and then decomposed into carbon dioxide, water and other substances by bacteria.
With regard to biodegradable materials, various products have been developed and produced:
Firstly, degradable resins and parent materials include all-biodegradable resins, photobiodegradable parent materials and composite degradable parent materials.
Two, biodegradable plastic products include compost bags, garbage bags, shopping bags, electronic packaging bags, plastic films, dining utensils, golf balls, foam materials, etc.
Third, common plastic products include shopping bags, garbage bags and office supplies.
Biodegradable plastics are mainly used in agriculture, food packaging, degrading foam nets and disposable snack boxes.
Agricultural film is the three pillars of agricultural production (fertilizer, pesticide, agricultural film), the original state control products, the market has been relatively tight. Since 1979, China has vigorously promoted agricultural film mulching cultivation techniques. In 1980, agricultural film covered only 25,000 mu, reaching 50 million mu in 1992. The application of agricultural film has developed from cotton and vegetables to cash crops, such as peanut, melon, beet, sugarcane, tobacco, fruit and grain crops, such as rice, early rice, wheat and maize. According to statistics, from 1982 to 1987, the output of agricultural films increased by 7.1 billion yuan. From 1978 to 1989, the planting technology covered with plastic film increased grain and cash crops by 28 billion kg. From the above statistics, it can be seen that the popularization and application of agricultural film has brought remarkable economic benefits.
In short, the most prominent advantage of degradable plastics is that they are degradable and do not pollute the environment. Replacing polyethylene and other plastics is the general trend, and upgrading of plastic film products is imperative. It is estimated that the current market size is 30 billion yuan, with an annual growth rate of 30% to 50%.
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