来源网址：http://www.rsoau.com 2019-04-18 15:37:23
采用玉米为原料生产聚乳酸，符合绿色化学12 项原则中的11 项，充分体现了绿色化学的指导思想和理念。
Using corn as raw material to produce polylactic acid conforms to 11 of the 12 principles of green chemistry, which fully embodies the guiding ideology and concept of green chemistry.
As one of the four basic materials, plastics are widely used in all walks of life because of its light texture, convenient processing, beautiful and practical.
2005 年中国的塑料产量达到4500 万吨，居世界前列。
In 2005, China's plastic production reached 45 million tons, ranking the top in the world.
The emergence of plastics has brought great convenience to our production and life. At the same time, the white pollution caused by plastics has become increasingly serious.
On the one hand, the deep penetration of plastic products into human production and life, on the other hand, the white pollution that can not be degraded after thousands of years.
With the increasing demand for environmental protection and the increasing market demand, it is not a word of mouth to say that corn starch granules can alleviate the oil crisis.
The environmental protection significance of corn starch granules lies in the saving of resources.
相比较而言,玉米淀粉的生产以大规模玉米等农作物的种植为前提,玉米种植可以防止因土地荒弃而造成的土壤沙化,同时玉米的生长过程又是绿色植物利用光合作用吸收二氧化碳释放氧气的过程。有学者提出,相对于化工塑料,玉米塑料少用了50 %的石油原料,减少了40 %的温室气体排放。废弃的玉米塑料制品不会对环境造成压力,自行降解为二氧化碳和水后可再次参与光合作用。在玉米塑料的整个生命历程中实现了物质的循环和空气的净化,是真正意义上的绿色环保型可再生资源。
In contrast, corn starch production is based on large-scale cultivation of corn and other crops. Maize cultivation can prevent soil desertification caused by land abandonment. At the same time, the growth process of maize is the process of green plants using photosynthesis to absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Some scholars have proposed that compared with chemical plastics, corn plastics use 50% less petroleum raw materials and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40%. Waste corn plastic products will not cause environmental pressure, and can be degraded into carbon dioxide and water to participate in photosynthesis again. In the whole life course of corn plastics, material circulation and air purification have been realized. It is a real green, environmental friendly and renewable resource.
The significance of the development of corn starch granule industry lies not only in environmental protection, but also in taking corn and other plants as raw materials, which fundamentally solves the dilemma that chemical plastics originate from petroleum and the raw materials are easily exhausted. Using plants as raw materials, their final decomposition products can still return to nature without harming the surrounding environment. The process of production, use and decomposition constitutes a closed-circuit cycle.
(1) Good biodegradability. Polylactic acid can be completely degraded by microorganisms in nature, and eventually produce carbon dioxide and water. It does not pollute the environment and is very beneficial to the protection of the environment.
（2）机械性能及物理性能良好。聚乳酸适用于吹塑、热塑等各种加工方法，加工方便，应用十分广泛。PLA 本身属脂肪族聚酯，具有通用高分子材料的基本特性，可用于包装材料、家电外壳或作为可降解纤维材料。PLA 可以替代部分聚乙烯和聚丙烯的应用，广泛应用于塑料的各种成型加工。例如：塑料容器，杯子、盘子、食品容器（盒）、液体容器（瓶、桶）、餐具（刀、勺、叉）、包装膜、塑料袋、发泡塑料（容器、包装材料）、地膜、纺织（服装、无纺布）等。PLA 材料的透明度和光泽很好，有利于展示被包装物品的特性，阻气阻水性好，印刷方便，其优异的性能决定了它将在包装市场上占有重要地位。
(2) Good mechanical and physical properties. Polylactic acid is suitable for blow moulding, thermoplastics and other processing methods. It is easy to process and widely used. PLA itself belongs to aliphatic polyester and has the basic characteristics of general polymer materials. PLA can be used as packaging materials, household appliances shell or as degradable fiber materials. PLA can replace some applications of polyethylene and polypropylene, and is widely used in various moulding processes of plastics. For example: plastic containers, cups, plates, food containers (boxes), liquid containers (bottles, barrels), tableware (knives, spoons, forks), packaging film, plastic bags, foamed plastic (containers, packaging materials), plastic film, textiles (clothing, non-woven fabrics), etc. PLA material has good transparency and luster, which is conducive to exhibiting the characteristics of packaged goods, good air and water resistance, easy printing, and its excellent performance determines that it will occupy an important position in the packaging market.
(3) Good compatibility and degradability. Polylactic acid is also widely used in the field of medicine, such as the production of disposable infusion appliances, removable surgical sutures, low molecular weight polylactic acid as drug slow-release packaging agent, etc. Compared with other commonly used polymer materials, PLA has unique biocompatibility and biodegradability, so it can be used as artificial fracture internal fixator (instead of metal fixator, avoiding secondary surgery), slow-release material, surgical suture, tissue repair material and so on. Because of its high value-added technology, it is the main market of polylactic acid and the most promising polymer material widely used in medical industry. Because its raw materials are renewable biological resources, the world recognized the most promising new environmental protection and sustainable development materials in the new century.