With the increase of energy prices and the increasingly prominent environmental problems, the pace of biodegradable materials replacing traditional petroleum products has been accelerating in the international arena. It is expected that the government will also promulgate relevant preferential policies, laws and regulations to encourage market applications and achieve a long-term vision for the large-scale application of biodegradable materials.
Biodegradable materials include macromolecule materials directly prepared by biotechnology, such as polyhydroxyalkyl fatty acid ester (PHA), polylactic acid (PLA), polybutylene succinate (PBS), polyamino acid and so on, and starch-based biodegradable plastics, carbon dioxide copolymer aliphatic polycarbonate (APC). And so on.
Starch-based biodegradable plastics is a kind of plastics product made by blending starch with other polymers after modification and grafting reaction. It can replace general plastics in industry, and can be used as packaging materials, shock-proof materials, plastic film, food containers, toys and so on.
PLA is a kind of macromolecule material produced by the polymerization of lactic acid. It has the characteristics of non-toxicity, non-irritation, high strength, easy processing and good biocompatibility. The products can be completely degraded after use. Therefore, PLA is a kind of bio-environmental protection material that can truly achieve the ecological and economic effects. It is the most active and fastest-growing biodegradable plastics in recent years.
Polybutylene succinate is obtained by condensation of succinic acid and butylene glycol. It is now recognized as the best biodegradable plastic with inductive function in the world. Because of its excellent inductive function, reasonable cost performance and wide application, PBS can be used in packaging, tableware, cosmetics bottles and drug bottles, disposable medical supplies, agricultural films, slow-release materials of pesticides and fertilizers, biomedical polymer materials and other fields.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate is a kind of natural macromolecule polyester. It is a kind of intracellular polyester composed of many bacteria under specific conditions. More than 90 genera of bacteria have been found to form PHA with more than 150 different structures. At present, the commercialized PHA products mainly include Polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB), copolymer of hydroxybutyric acid and hydroxy valeric acid (PHBV) and copolymer of hydroxybutyric acid and hydroxy hexanoic acid (PHBHx).